Community pharmacists: Underutilized resources in the HIV care team. Anal sex is a common practice among men who have sex with men, heterosexual men and women, and transgender individuals and is a known risk factor for HIV infection and transmission. Therefore, it is important that education on HIV prevention includes accurate information on the fluids that can transmit HIV through this type of sex. If one of these fluids is excluded from prevention messaging, it could lead a client to underestimate their risk of HIV transmission. While there is no doubt that semen, pre-ejaculate pre-cum , and blood can contribute to the risk of HIV transmission through anal sex; it seems there is less clarity among frontline service providers on whether rectal fluid should also be included on this list. This article looks at what rectal fluid is, whether or not it can contain and transmit HIV, and the implications for prevention education.
What are the risks of anal sex?
Anal sex and the risk of HIV transmission | aidsmap
A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking or diet, can be changed. Several factors can affect your risk of anal cancer. But having a risk factor, or even several risk factors, does not mean that you will get cancer. Many people with risk factors never develop anal cancer, while others with this disease may have few or no known risk factors. In fact, women with a history of cervical cancer or pre-cancer have an increased risk of anal cancer.
does anal sex cause HIV?
Heterosexual anal intercourse is rarely discussed in the scientific literature. Review of the literature suggests the silence is linked to ethnocentric discomfort about it among researchers and health care providers, coupled with the misconception that anal sex is a homosexual male practice, not heterosexual. Sexually transmitted disease STD data, especially where only the rectum is infected with gonorrhea or other STD agents, buttresses survey data.
The risk of HIV through unprotected anal intercourse is seen to be extremely high, as much 18 times greater than vaginal intercourse. The reasons for the increased risk are well known and include such factors as:. Furthermore, the secretion of blood from damaged rectal tissues can increase the risk for the insertive "top" partner, providing the virus a route of transmission through the urethra and tissues that line the head of the penis particularly under the foreskin.